John Romero

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John Romero
John Romero - Jason Scott interview (6951215353) (cropped).jpg
Romero in 2012
Born Alfonso John Romero
(1967-10-28) October 28, 1967 (age 50)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.
Occupation Video game designer, video game programmer
Spouse(s) Kelly Mitchell
(m. 1987; div. 1989)

Elizabeth Ann McCall
(m. 1990; div. 1998)

Raluca Alexandra Pleşca
(m. 2004; div. 2011)

Brenda Romero (m. 2012)
Partner(s) Stevie Case (1998–2003)
Children 3

Alfonso John Romero (born October 28, 1967)[1] is an American director, designer, programmer, and developer in the video game industry. He is best known as a co-founder of id Software and designer for many of their games, including Wolfenstein 3D, Dangerous Dave, Hexen, Doom and Quake. His game designs and development tools, along with new programming techniques created and implemented by id Software's lead programmer John D. Carmack, led to a mass popularization of the first-person shooter, or FPS, in the 1990s. He is credited with coining the FPS multiplayer term "deathmatch".[2]


Among his early influences, the arcade game Space Invaders (1978), with its "shoot the alien" gameplay, introduced him to video games.[3] Namco's maze chase arcade game Pac-Man (1980) had the biggest influence on his career,[4] as it was the first game that got him "thinking about game design."[3] Nasir Gebelli (Sirius Software, Squaresoft) was his favorite programmer and a major inspiration, with his fast 3D programming work for Apple II games, such as the shooters Horizon V (1981) and Zenith (1982), influencing his later work at id Software.[5] Other influences include programmer Bill Budge,[5] Shigeru Miyamoto's Super Mario games, and the fighting games Street Fighter II, Fatal Fury, Art of Fighting[6] and Virtua Fighter.[7]

Early career[edit]

John Romero's first developed game was a Crazy Climber clone, but it wasn't published.[3] His first published game, Scout Search, appeared in the June 1984 issue of inCider magazine, a popular Apple II magazine during the 1980s. Romero's first company, Capitol Ideas Software, was listed as the developer for at least 12 of his earliest published games. Romero captured the December cover of the Apple II magazine Nibble for three years in a row starting in 1987. He entered a programming contest in A+ magazine during its first year of publishing with his game Cavern Crusader. The first game Romero created that was eventually published was Jumpster in Uptime (disk magazine). Jumpster was created in 1983 and published in 1987, making Jumpster his earliest created, then published, game.[8]

Romero's first industry job was at Origin Systems in 1987 after programming games for 8 years.[9] He worked on the Apple II to Commodore 64 port of 2400 A.D., which was eventually scrapped due to slow sales of the Apple II version. Romero then moved onto Space Rogue, a game by Paul Neurath. During this time, Romero was asked if he would be interested in joining Paul's soon-to-start company Blue Sky Productions, eventually renamed Looking Glass Technologies. Instead, Romero left Origin Systems to co-found a game company named Inside Out Software, where he ported Might & Magic II from the Apple II to the Commodore 64. He had almost finished the Commodore 64 to Apple II port of Tower Toppler, but Epyx unexpectedly cancelled all its ports industrywide due to their tremendous investment in the first round of games for the upcoming Atari Lynx. During this short time, Romero did the artwork for the Apple IIGS version of Dark Castle, a port from the Macintosh. During this time, John and his friend Lane Roathe co-founded a company named Ideas from the Deep and wrote versions of a game named Zappa Roidz for the Apple II, PC and Apple IIGS. Their last collaboration was an Apple II disk operating system (InfoDOS) for Infocom's games Zork Zero, Arthur, Shogun and Journey.

1990s: id Software and Ion Storm[edit]

Romero moved to Shreveport, Louisiana in March 1989 and joined Softdisk as a programmer in its Special Projects division. After several months of helping the PC monthly disk magazine Big Blue Disk, he officially moved into the department until he started a PC games division in July 1990 named 'Gamer's Edge' (originally titled PCRcade). Romero hired John D. Carmack into the department from his freelancing in Kansas City, moved Adrian Carmack into the division from Softdisk's art department, and persuaded Tom Hall to come in at night and help with game design. Romero and the others then left Softdisk in February 1991 to form id Software.[10]

There it was, the familiar milieu of Super Mario Brothers 3: pale blue sky, the puffy white clouds, the bushy green shrubs, the animated tiles with little question marks rolling over their sides and, strangely, his character Dangerous Dave standing ready on the bottom of the screen. Romero tapped his arrow key, moved Dave along the floor, and watched him scroll smoothly across the screen. That’s when he lost it.[2]

Romero worked at id Software from its inception in 1991 until 1996. He was involved in the creation of several milestone games, including Commander Keen, Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, Doom II: Hell on Earth and Quake.[10] He served as executive producer (and game designer) on Heretic and Hexen. He designed most of the first episode of Doom, most of the levels in Quake, half the levels in the Commander Keen, Wolfenstein 3D: Spear of Destiny. He wrote many of the tools used at id Software to create their games, including DoomEd (level editor), QuakeEd (level editor), DM (for deathmatch launching), DWANGO client (to connect the game to DWANGO's servers), TED5 (level editor for the Commander Keen series, Wolfenstein 3D: Spear of Destiny), IGRAB (for grabbing assets and putting them in WAD files), the installers for all the games up to and including Quake, the SETUP program used to configure the games, and several others. In his keynote speech at WeAreDevelopers Conference 2017, Romero named this period Turbo Mode, in which he emphasizes having created 28 games, in 5.5 years with a team consisting of fewer than 10 developers.[11]

During the production of Quake Romero clashed with John Carmack over the future direction of id. Romero wanted the game to follow his demanding vision without compromise, but Carmack insisted that the project had to make steady progress toward completion and accused Romero of not working as much as the other developers. Although Romero relented on his vision and joined a months-long death march effort to finish the game, this did not resolve the tensions within the company, and Romero was forced to resign.[2]

In level 30 of Doom II, "Icon of Sin", the boss is supposed to be a giant demon head with a fragment missing from its forehead. When first viewing the demon, a distorted and demonic message is played, which is actually John Romero saying "To win the game, you must kill me, John Romero!", reversed and distorted to sound like a demonic chant. One can use the "noclip" cheat to enter the boss and see Romero's severed head which is skewered on a post. The player defeats the boss (without the noclip cheat) by shooting rockets into its exposed brain after activating a lift and riding it. Romero's head functions as its hit detection point; when he "dies", the boss is killed and the game is finished. In the 2013 IGN Doom playthrough to celebrate Doom's 20th anniversary, Romero shared the backstory behind the inclusion of his head as the final boss and the reversed sound effect - they were both a result of in-joke pranking between development team members.[12]

Romero later co-founded Ion Storm in Dallas, Texas with id co-worker Tom Hall, where he designed and produced Daikatana.[10] This ambitious first-person shooter was announced in 1997 with a release date for the Christmas shopping season of that year. However, this release date slipped repeatedly in the coming months, and the game began to accrue negative press. In Spring 2010, Gamesauce featured Romero on its cover and contained an in-depth interview with Romero written by Brenda Brathwaite.[13] In the interview, Romero publicly apologized for the infamous Daikatana advertisement. In particular, a 1997 advertisement boasting "John Romero's About To Make You His Bitch....Suck it down" caused controversy amongst gamers and the gaming press.[14] The massive pre-hype for the game and the subsequent delays (it was not released until April 2000) were compounded by the poor reviews the game received when it was finally complete.[15] Upon release, Daikatana was critically panned and appeared on numerous "top 10 worst games" listings. During this time, Romero was rumored to have been killed (aptly enough, with a headshot) and a photograph of his corpse with a bullet wound was also spread through the Internet; Romero himself later stated that the picture was taken for the magazine Texas Monthly, and that "maybe he shouldn't have taken it".[16] Romero departed with Tom Hall immediately after the release of Hall's Anachronox game and the subsequent closing of the Dallas Ion office.


In July 2001, Romero and Hall founded Monkeystone Games in order to develop and publish games for mobile devices, and Monkeystone released 15 games (approximately) during its short lifespan of three and a half years. Some highlights of their developments included Hyperspace Delivery Boy! (Pocket PC, Windows, Linux), Congo Cube (Pocket PC, PC, BREW, Java ME), and a version of Red Faction for the Nokia N-Gage. He and his girlfriend, Stevie Case, broke up in 2003, and she left the company in May while Red Faction development continued until October. John then left Monkeystone Games' day-to-day operations to Lucas Davis while Romero and Hall left for Midway in San Diego.[17]

In mid-October 2003, Romero joined Midway Games as project lead on Gauntlet: Seven Sorrows. While he continued to maintain his working relationship with Monkeystone, Lucas Davis took over running the office. The Monkeystone team moved to Austin, Texas to work on Midway's Area 51 title until its release. Monkeystone Games closed down in January 2005. Romero moved from project lead to creative director of internal studio during this time. At the end of June 2005, Romero left Midway Games mere months before the completion of Gauntlet: Seven Sorrows.[18]

On August 31, 2005, Romero confirmed[19] that he was working on a yet-to-be-announced MMOG at his newly opened development studio, Slipgate Ironworks. It was reported that the name was temporary. "For the record," Romero wrote, "I'm co-founder of a new game company in the Bay Area and am much better off in many ways than I was at Midway". He said that he would not reveal anything about the company or the game until 2007. On March 17, 2009 it was announced that Slipgate Ironworks was part of Gazillion Entertainment.[20] Along with venture capitalist Rob Hutter and investor Bhavin Shah, Romero was a co-founder[21] of Gazillion. On July 22, 2006, John Romero and former co-worker Tom Hall guest hosted episode 53 of the podcast The Widget.[22] Romero departed Gazillion Entertainment in November 2010 to form a social game company called Loot Drop alongside Brenda Brathwaite.[23] His longtime co-worker, Tom Hall joined the company on January 1, 2011.[24]

John Romero was the CPL's Chairman of the Board for ten years. On December 20, 2006, John Romero announced a new FPS project for the Cyberathlete Professional League titled Severity for both consoles and PC.[25] It was announced that Tom Mustaine (ex-Studio Director at Ritual Entertainment) would act as Director of Game Development at CPL's new studio. It was stated that Severity would be a multiplayer first person shooter, and that the game would be built on technology licensed from id Software. On October 2009, Angel Munoz, founder of the Cyberathlete Professional League (CPL) stated that Severity was no longer being produced because they were not able "to convince game publishers of its value".[26]

2010 to present[edit]

In March 2010, John Romero collaborated with the gaming magazine Retro Gamer, taking on the role of a guest editor, taking charge of the magazine's editorial and contributing to a number of articles on different subjects throughout the magazine. The issue contains an interview by Romero with industry luminaries offering their thoughts on Romero. In August 2014, in a Super Joystiq Podcast at Gamescom 2014 Romero announced that he was about to make a new shooter,[27] stating that he was working with a concept artist and he had some cool imagery for the main character.[28] In April 2016, Romero announced a partnership with Adrian Carmack to create a new FPS entitled Blackroom,[29] describing their vision as a visceral, varied and violent shooter that harkens back to classic FPS play with a mixture of exploration, speed, and intense, weaponized combat. They were seeking $700,000 via Kickstarter to see the project to completion and anticipated a launch in late 2018.[30] The Kickstarter campaign was cancelled four days after its launch.[31]

Personal life[edit]

Romero and other game developers at a BAFTA event in Los Angeles in July 2011. From left: Rod Humble, Louis Castle, David Perry, Brenda Romero, John Romero, Will Wright, Tim Schafer, Chris Hecker.

Romero was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado in the United States. He is of Mexican, Yaqui and Cherokee heritage.[32] His mother Ginny delivered him six weeks premature. His parents, married only a few months before, had long been living in hard times. Ginny, good-humored and easygoing, met Alfonso Antonio Romero when they were teenagers in Tucson, Arizona. Alfonso, a first-generation Mexican American, was a maintenance man at an air force base, spending his days fixing air conditioners and heating systems. After Alfonso and Ginny got married, they headed in a 1948 Chrysler with three hundred dollars to Colorado, hoping their interracial relationship would thrive in more tolerant surroundings.[2] In January 2004, Romero married Raluca Alexandra Pleșca, originally from Bucharest, Romania. They divorced in 2011.

Romero and game developer Brenda Brathwaite became engaged on March 24, 2012. They married on October 27, 2012.[33][34][35][36] Together, they worked on Ravenwood Fair, with Romero as Lead Designer and Brathwaite as Creative Director and Game Designer. They also founded social game development company Loot Drop in November 2010, and worked on Cloudforest Expedition and Ghost Recon Commander together.[23] Romero has three children from two previous marriages: Michael, born in 1988, Steven born in 1989, and Lillia Antoinette, born in 1998. Romero's long hair has been a source of both admiration and derision for his fans. John guest-answered Planet Quake's "Dear Mynx" column, in which a female fan asked for hair care tips.[37] Romero cut his hair short in 2002 and donated it to Locks of Love.[38] Discussion boards such as Doomworld and BeyondUnreal had threads discussing his new look at the time, although in recent years Romero has grown it back to full length.


Date Award Description
2017 Development Legend Awarded at Develop:Brighton[39]
2016 Cacoward Awarded at for the new DOOM 1 level E1M8b[40]
2012 Tech Hall of Fame Included in list of technology creators.[41]
2012 Apple II Forever Award Awarded at KansasFest to members of the Apple II community who had made significant contributions to the Apple II.[42]
2011 Most Influential Person in Facebook and Social Games #1 in's 2011 list.[43]
1999 MIT Technology Review TR100 Innovators Under 35.[44]
1998 Time Magazine's Cyber Elite 50 #36, The top 50 tech elite of the year.[45]
1998 Top 20 Texan of the Year Texas Monthly's yearly list of the Top 20 Texans[46]
1997 Time Magazine's Cyber Elite 50 #40, The top 50 tech elite of the year.[47]
1996 The most influential people in computer gaming of all time #7, GameSpot's "The most influential people in computer gaming of all time" list.


Name Year Publisher
Dodge 'Em 1982 Capitol Ideas Software
Scout Search 1984 inCider Magazine
Cavern Crusader 1984 A+ Magazine
Bongo's Bash[48] 1985 A+ Magazine
Zippy Zombi 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Wacky Wizard 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Subnodule 1987 Keypunch Software, Inc.
Pyramids of Egypt 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Neptune's Nasties 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Major Mayhem 1987 Nibble Magazine
Lethal Labyrinth 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Krazy Kobra 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Jumpster 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
Evil Eye 1987 Uptime Disk Monthly
James Clavell's Shōgun 1988 Infocom
Dangerous Dave in the Deserted Pirate's Hideout 1988 Uptime Disk Monthly
City Centurian 1988 Nibble Magazine
Zork Zero: The Revenge of Megaboz 1989 Infocom
Zappa Roidz 1989 Softdisk Publishing
Twilight Treasures 1989 Softdisk Publishing
Space Rogue 1989 Origin Systems
Might and Magic II: Gates to Another World 1989 New World Computing
Magic Boxes 1989 Softdisk Publishing
Journey: The Quest Begins 1989 Infocom
How to Weigh an Elephant 1989 Softdisk Publishing
Big Blue Disk #32 1989 Softdisk Publishing
Big Blue Disk #35 1989 Softdisk Publishing
The Catacomb Abyss 1989 Softdisk
Arthur: The Quest for Excalibur 1989 Infocom
Sub Stalker 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Pixel Puzzler 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Dinosorcerer 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Dark Designs II: Closing the Gate 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Commander Keen 1: Marooned on Mars 1990 Apogee Software
Commander Keen 2: The Earth Explodes 1990 Apogee Software
Commander Keen 3: Keen Must Die! 1990 Apogee Software
Catacomb 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Big Blue Disk #40 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Big Blue Disk #41 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Big Blue Disk #44 1990 Softdisk Publishing
Alfredo's Stupendous Surprise 1990 Softdisk
Xenopods 1991 Softdisk Publishing
Slordax: The Unknown Enemy 1991 Softdisk
Rescue Rover 1991 Softdisk
Rescue Rover 2 1991 Expert Software, Froggman, Softdisk
Shadow Knights 1991 Softdisk Publishing
Paragon 1991 Softdisk
Paganitzu 1991 Apogee Software
Hovertank 3D 1991 Softdisk
Dangerous Dave in the Haunted Mansion 1991 Softdisk
Commander Keen: Keen Dreams 1991 Softdisk
Commander Keen 4: Secret of the Oracle 1991 Apogee Software
Commander Keen 5: The Armageddon Machine 1991 Apogee Software
Commander Keen 6: Aliens Ate My Baby Sitter! 1991 FormGen
The Catacomb (Catacomb II) 1991 Softdisk
Catacomb 3-D 1991 Softdisk
Wolfenstein 3D 1992 Apogee Software
Spear of Destiny 1992 FormGen
Cyberchess 1992 Softdisk
Terror of the Catacombs 1993 Froggman
Street Ball 1993 Froggman
Shadowcaster 1993 Origin Systems
ScubaVenture: The Search for Pirate's Treasure 1993 Softdisk
Dangerous Dave's Risky Rescue 1993 Softdisk
Curse of the Catacombs 1993 Froggman
Bio Menace 1993 Apogee Software
Blake Stone: Aliens of Gold 1993 Apogee Software
Doom 1993 id Software
Corridor 7: Alien Invasion 1994 Capstone Software
Super 3D Noah's Ark 1994 Wisdom Tree
Doom II: Hell on Earth 1994 GT Interactive
Blake Stone: Planet Strike 1994 FormGen
Wolfenstein 3D 1994 Atari Corporation
Rise of the Triad: Dark War 1994 FormGen
Heretic 1994 id Software
The Ultimate Doom 1995 GT Interactive
Hexen: Beyond Heretic 1995 id Software
Heretic: Shadow of the Serpent Riders 1996 id Software
Strife 1996 Velocity Inc.
Final Doom 1996 id Software; Atari, Inc.
Quake 1996 id Software
Chex Quest 1996 Digital Café
Doom 64 1997 Midway Games
Dominion: Storm Over Gift 3 1998 Eidos Interactive
Half-Life 1998 Sierra Studios
Daikatana 2000 Eidos Interactive
Red Faction 2001 THQ Wireless
Anachronox 2001 Eidos Interactive
Hyperspace Delivery Boy! 2002 Monkeystone Games
Jewels and Jim 2003 THQ Wireless
Dig It! 2003 THQ Wireless
Congo Cube 2003 THQ Wireless, RealArcade
Cartoon Network: Block Party 2004 Majesco Entertainment
Gauntlet: Seven Sorrows 2005 Midway Games
Area 51 2005 Midway Austin
Ravenwood Fair 2010 Lolapps, Inc.
Marvel Super Hero Squad Online 2011 Gazillion Entertainment Inc.
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Commander 2012 Ubisoft, Inc.
Pettington Park 2012 Zynga Game Network, Inc.
Dodger Down 2013 Howljerk Games
Play Gig-it 2013 Gig-it Corp
Techno Dash 2014 Hammerwing Studios, Inc.
Dangerous Dave in the Deserted Pirate's Hideout 2015 John Romero
Grom Skate 2015 Grom Social Inc.
Warpcop III 2017 indie published
July 4, 1976 2017 Playbarf
Gunman Taco Truck 2017 Romero Games Ltd.


  1. ^ John Romero on IMDb
  2. ^ a b c d Kushner, David (2003). Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created An Empire And Transformed Pop Culture. Random House. 89. ISBN 0-375-50524-5. 
  3. ^ a b c JOHN ROMERO, Retro Gamer, issue 75
  4. ^ Bailey, Kat (March 9, 2012). "These games inspired Cliff Bleszinski, John Romero, Will Wright, and Sid Meier". Joystiq. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Barton, Matt (19 April 2016). "Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers". CRC Press – via Google Books. 
  6. ^ Consalvo, Mia (2016). Atari to Zelda: Japan's Videogames in Global Contexts. MIT Press. pp. 201–3. ISBN 0262034395. 
  7. ^ "Does John Romero Still Enjoy Shooting People?". Next Generation. No. 30. June 1997. pp. 9–12. 
  8. ^ "Jumpster game design notes & published information". Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. 
  9. ^ "John Romero discusses his early years in the gaming industry". Archived from the original on 2016-02-17.
  10. ^ a b c The Escapist - John Romero: The Escapist Interview Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.. The Escapist.
  11. ^
  12. ^ rebelCoder (Юрий.Л.) (12 December 2013). "Doom Playthrough With John Romero - 20 Yars of Doom! (by IGN)". Archived from the original on 8 January 2015 – via YouTube. 
  13. ^ Gamesauce Spring 2010 Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Spring 2010. Gamesauce.
  14. ^ "The Top 7... PR Disasters" Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. Game Radar
  15. ^ "Romero Threatens to Make You His Bitch" Archived 2005-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Top 25 Dumbest Moments in Gaming History. June 2003. GameSpy.
  16. ^ Dunkin, Alan. "Romero Speaks... From the Grave?" Archived 2010-02-18 at the Wayback Machine. GameSpot. August 28, 1998.
  17. ^ Retro Gamer magazine, issue 75: In the Chain with ... John Romero (pages 78-89)
  18. ^ Games Industry International (13 July 2005). "Romero Leaves Midway". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  19. ^ News - John Romero's new studio Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.. September 21, 2005. Eurogamer.
  20. ^ Gazillion in agreement with Marvel Entertainment to bring iconic super heroes to massively multiplayer games audience, unveils new company and studios March 17, 2009.
  21. ^ John Romero's Twitterstream March 17, 2009.
  22. ^ "Ep. 53 – Just Hanging Out - The Widget – Games, Tech, Whatever". Archived from the original on 2013-08-06. 
  23. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. Retrieved 2016-02-08.  Loot Drop's About page
  24. ^ Takahashi, Dean. "Loot Drop banks on talented game designers as it takes on social gaming's giants (exclusive)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  25. ^ Romero Announces New CPL Specific FPS Archived February 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ "". Archived from the original on 2010-01-07. 
  27. ^ "Super Joystiq Podcast Special: Gamescom 2014 Day 1". Archived from the original on 2016-08-15. 
  28. ^ "After 14 years John Romero is working on another shooter". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. 
  29. ^ "Welcome". Archived from the original on 2016-04-28. 
  30. ^ "Doom creators seek cash for 'classic' shooter". Archived from the original on 2016-05-01. 
  31. ^ O'Connor, Alice. "Romero's Blackroom Kicksterter Cancelled Until Demo Finished". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  32. ^ The post-apocalyptic dimensional space of Native video game design Archived 2017-03-22 at the Wayback Machine.>
  33. ^ "Facebook". Archived from the original on 2016-01-16. 
  34. ^ "John Romero - Facebook". Archived from the original on 2016-01-16. 
  35. ^ "Brenda Romero on Twitter". 
  36. ^ "John Romero on Twitter". 
  37. ^ Dear Mynx Editorial Column Archived 2013-10-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ John Romero's Blog Archive Archived 2009-02-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  39. ^ "Develop:Brighton Development Legend". Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. 
  40. ^ "The 23rd Annual Cacowards". Archived from the original on 2016-12-10. 
  41. ^ "Pinterest Tech Hall of Fame". Archived from the original on 2014-07-10. 
  42. ^ KansasFest
  43. ^ "Romero awarded #1 spot in list of Most Influential Person in Facebook and Social Games". Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. 
  44. ^ "Romero awarded a position in MIT's technology list". [permanent dead link]
  45. ^ "Romero is at position #35". Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. 
  46. ^ "Romero listed as one of the Top 20 Texans of the year". Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. 
  47. ^ "News source at the time reporting Romero's inclusion". Archived from the original on 2014-07-09. 
  48. ^ "Bongo's Bash - 1983". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]